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AN INTERNATIONAL DAILY NEWSPAPER.

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Shepilov Rankin

Keeps Kremlin

. By Paul Wohl Written for The Christian Science Monitor

Moscow’s claim ‘that ~ the change of foreign ministers does not affect its foreign policy has been widely accepted in the West.

Some observers feel that the shift ultimately may enhance the stature of Dmitri T. Shepilov, who remains an alternate mem- ber of the ruling party pre- Sidium and has regained the Strategic post of a secretary of the central committee. :

While this particular move of Feb. 15 could not be foreseen, it was certain that the current session of the Supreme Soviet, or parliament, with its plan re- port for the current year and other novelties, pointed to new departures. The tenor of the Supreme Soviet’s “debate” was an attempt to develop a new Political and economic § style marked by. greater fiexibility, decentralization, and a more modern, practical way of doing things.

Report Approved

This was brought out in Mr. Shepilov’s foreign-policy ad- dress of Feb. 12 as well as in the speech on the current plan by Mikhail G.. Pervukhin, First Deputy Premier and supreme econémic coordinator.

Mr. Shepilov’s report was solemnly approved in a resolu- tion signed by the chairman of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet, President of the Repub- lic Voroshilov, and the Presid- jum’s new Georgian secretary, Mikhail P. Gheorgadze.

Peking’s endorsement of the Supreme Soviet’s foreign-policy platform, especially of its pro- gram for the Middle East, seems to indicate that Mr. Shepilov’s replacement as foreign minister by Andrei A. Gromyko had nothing to do with the reserved, if not unfavorable, response of Egypt and other Middle East countries. |

By Soviet standards a shift of Foreign Ministers is not nec- essarily of political importance. When in 1939 Vyacheslav M., Molotov. replaced Maxim —_M. Litvinov as People’s Commissar of Foreign Affairs, Soviet policy had changed; when in 1949 the late Andrei Y. Vishinsky re- lieved Mr. Molotov, it was of no political significance.

Significance Weighed

Cabinet shifts follow differ- ent rules in the U.S.S.R., and their significance varies from case to case:

1. Members of the ruling party presidium are not infre- quently given ministerial posts or relieved of them.

2. The post of Foreign Minis- ter is not of the highest, order in the - Soviet political -hierarchy. Neither Vishinsky nér Litvinov belonged to the Politburo or to the inner cabinet. Experienced observers believe that Mr. Molo- toy’s present assignment as Min- ister of State Control is politi- cally more important than was Mr. Shepilov’s post of Foreign

Minister, but the ultimate source of Mr. Molotov’s authority re- mains his senior membership of the party presidium.

3. Mr. S lov’s replacement as Foreign Minister by decision of the party’s central committee three days after the approval of his speech by the Supreme viet confirms that the Supreme Soviet remains a sounding board and that political decisions are taken by the party’s central committee.

No Rift Seen >

Since Stalin it. has become customary for the central com- mittee to meet on the eve of the Supreme Soviet’s session. Be- cause virtually all its members also belong to the Supreme So- viet or Parliament, it forms a caucus. In view of the long- drawn-out session of the Su- preme Soviet, a second meeting or plenum of the central com- mittee was nothing extraor-

porno BOS PON, -MONDAY;,-FEBRUARY “18; 1957 eo 3 ee . , r : 7 a 7 x t 4 * - r

PenalGuards|

Trained For Reform Era

By Laura Haddock Staff Writer of The Christian Science Monitor

Guards at Massachusetts penal institutions officially called correctional officers now are being put through a course of fin-service training which the Commissioner of Correction de- clares is the best of its kind in the country.

“In this one respect at least,” says Commissioner Russell G. Oswald, “Massachusetts is way out ahead.” He is from Wiscon- sin and has long been in touch with the progress made in all the states.

In the refresher course of two weeks, 40 hours a week, guards ‘are taught to know their job, to

‘know their profession, to know.

their department—the Depart- ment of Correction, that is. There is a four-week course of orientation for new guards, and in each institution there now is a-training officer to give daily on-the-job instruction.

Sights Lengthened Mr. Oswald says he hopes that

dinary. 4. Party Chief. Nikita -5.

Khrushchev’s speech before the |

“plenum,” its subsequent (un- published) policy decisions, se-

lection of Frol R. Kozlov, first |

secretary of the Leningrad Prov ince party organization, as al- ternate members of the party

ai the former | presidium, and of the for ‘something that has yet to be)

om ey ikolai S. Patolichev, as First)

boss of Byelorussia,

Deputy Foreign Minister, only |

indicate that the central commit- | tee continues to function as an

arena of political discussion | where differences among the leaders are straightened out in a

businesslike manner, presumably |

by vote. New Job Outlined

_ Responsible observers see no'

sign of a serious rift in the out- come of this latest central com- mittee “plenum.” All that is known is that since the war Mr. Patolichev’s career has been as- sociated with the rise of Mr. Khrushchev. Mr. Kozlov is re- membered for a strongly anti- Semitic article in No. 1 of Kom- munist in 1953 which appeared the same week in which the al- leged plot of the “doctors-mur-

derers” was sprung upon the

world.

5. Mr. Shepilov’s foreign- policy speech, as well as subse- quent speeches by the influential President of Uzbekistan, Sharaf R. Rashidov, and Minister of Culture. Nikolai A. Mikhailov, point to plans for drawing Com-

sometime in the future there will be stil] another section added to the training program:

colleges, for promising men on the staffs

of the prisons to prepare them

for promotion to top positions in the system. But that is

worked out. In the meantime, | 2 philosophy of “rehabilitation

; :

)

-education in outside schools and | on scholarship basis,

the new)

rather than mere punishment,” | ¥%

which gripped Massachusetts

‘after the 1955 disturbance at 4

the state prison in Charlestown | |

and the findings of the Wessell

Committee which studied —the)

entire penal system, is being aided immeasurably by the re-

fresher course for older per- |

manent uniformed employees. First, in groups of 25 or so lat a time they meet their com- missioner and his deputies and are given the opportunity to talk informally, to ask ques- tions, and to speak their minds. | They meet and talk with \psychiatrists. Some of these ‘guards have questioned’ the value of psychiatric aid in the

|prisons until they have talked | and |

with the _ psychiatrists

learned more about their work. In fact, one of the most valu-

able accomplishments of the

course, says Edwin Powers, Dep- |

uty Commissioner of Correction in charge of personnel and train- ing, is the closer communication it is establishing between Vari- ous levels and various types of

munist parties, Communist sym- pathizers, and socialistically

minded nationalists of under- |

developed countries into one or-

ganized world movement or | action group. Mr. Shepilov is | believed to be well suited to}

spark, orchestrate, and direct

such a drive.

If this view is carried out by events, Mr. Shepilov will gain in importance, and traditional foreign policy will take second place under its present director, Mr, Gromyko, who in Moscow is referred to as an “ideal execu- tive,” or diplomatic machine man.

Bermuda Parley

Stirs Speculation

By Henry S. Hayward

Chief of the London News Bureau of The Christian Science Monitor

London

Under active behind-the- scenes discussion in both Lon- ) is “the ~ agenda for ~ the“ férthcoming meeting between Prime Minister Harold Macmillan and President Eisenhower.

The March 21 Bermuda ren- dezvous between the British and American leaders is seen here less as an attempt to thrash out -specifie problems than as public evidence of the reconciliation between the two governments.

Whitehall experts neverthe- less emphasize that the Eisen- hower-Macmillan confrontation would not be satisfactory to either man—or either country— if it were merely a showpiece. They expect serious business to be transacted, and considerable candor to be expressed by both sides.

Action Stressed

They want no repetition of last year’s high-sounding “Wash- ington declaration,” issued after the meeting between then Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden and the President—which upon re- reading now the British find “meaningless.”

Much needed, however, is a frank reassessment of what the Anglo-American alliance means in terms of action in 1957. Spe- cifically: What. policy moves which Britain today supports and desires will the United States also give full support to?

Will British initiative and “push” in some places be con- strued in Washington as an em- barrassment—or, worse, some- thing to be quietly opposed or counteracted?

In short, from now on where, when, and how is the old Lon- don-Washington bond to be im- plemented, taking account of rapidly altering conditions af- feeting Britain and the rough East-West balance of power in effect at the moment?

These are the type of ques- tions ‘London hopes the bilateral talks will clarify.

From the British viewpoint,

enently

therefore, the Bermuda confer- ence should include a candid look at the informal ties be- tween the two nations. “If Lon-

cert their ideas better on matters which lie outside the text of the NATO treaty, Britain in Eu- rope would be a more useful and less expensive friend,” com- ments the weekly Economist.

Royal Visit Weighed?

The British press is promi- featuring reports from Washington of a probable visit of Queen Elizabeth II and the

Duke of Edinburgh to the United |

States in the fall of this year. But it is authoritatively learned

that there are no plans at

present for the Queen to visit the

United States or Canada. It is added that this is by no means the first time that the

possibility of a royal visit to the | United States has been mooted. |

An official at Buckingham Palace stated “There is no plan at the moment for such a visit.”

The British also have views

about the recent visit of King | In the “know your job” part | : J J <

Saud to the United States. They see the Americans as well pleased with the prospect that the Saudi Arabian ruler will act, in effect, as a salesman for the Eisenhower Doctrine.

King Saud Hesitates

But they reportedly are not pleased about the American promise of more arms for Saudi Arabia, pone these might be used by King Saud to the detri- ment of British interests on the Arabian peninsula, in the same way Whitehall still believes

American oil payments were | used to British disadvantage in |

Jordan,

The belief here is that the Arabian monarch gave Ameri- | ean officials no reason to expect | that he intends to restore diplo- |

matic relations with Britain. It is understood King Saud re- mains bitter toward London, especially about the Buraimi Oasis dispute.

| profession”

workers in the department of correction. Prejudices fail, he says, when competent men are brought face to face with one another.

of “know your department.” The task of learning to “know your is not however.

The men are taught the rudi- | ments of judo, They are taught |

how to search an inmate for weapons—a thing they usually think they» know: perfectly well without being-trained to do, but may find they do not know at

| - Somewhere

all when faced with an inmate

'who has hidden a knife or a 'small gun on his persan more

cleverly than usual, They are taught the best at-

'titude for the corrections officer | to take There are two extremes to this, |

toward the

Mr. Powers says.

| At one end is the guard who

| firmly believes he should never speak to an inmate but should hold himself completely apart |and aloof.

‘Told to Avoid Extremes | At the other extreme is the man who gets too friendly with

don.and Washington would con- |immates,so™ that everitually “he

‘finds himself unable to say no to a request for a favor.

‘ideal attitude, and in the re- fresher course this problem is | discussed thoroughly. One of the ;most popular lectures in the

|course, says Mr. Powers, is the one given by the personnel man- |

ager of a big manufacturing company nearby, who speaks on general methods of dealing with people.

There is a brief lecture and |demonstration on first aid, given i|by the Red Cross. There is work | with firearms. Edward A. DePel- | teau, a nationally famous marks-

man, gives instruction’ in the |use of the rifle. James Brennan, ‘an expert in judo, handles the |courses in that form of self- | defense. Mr. Powers’s central staff in- i\cludes Palmer C. Scafati, super- |vising training officer, and Mel- |\vin Farnsworth and James F. ‘Mahoney, Jr., training instruc- tors.

1of the course, the classes take | trips to all the institutions in the | system to learn the functions of |each one,

As of today, 22 per cent of the 761 uniformed employees have taken either an _ . orientation course or the refresher course. The program will provide the re- fresher course for each man once in every two years, Mr. Powers says.

Inside Reading: .

Manchester Teachers

Why They Struck

Page 2 Nasser Decisions

Deadlines Approach

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All this comes under the head |

neglected, |

inmate. |

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United Press

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Washington News Huddle: Dulles States U.S.. Stand

P : $ ae pee : ee ne

‘On Gaza Stand >

By Neal Stanford

Staff Correspondent of The Christian Science

- President Eisenhower has explained again

Monitor Washington why he wishes

Israel to withdraw its troops from Egypt before a frontier

settlement is made.

His statement and his reaffirmed stand on this question will cause Israel to decide whether to accept a promise of later aid from the United States where it cannot obtain a present American guarantee. Israel has the choice of going it alone or relying on American influence to get what it wants

The President said in a public statement that the United Nations Charter binds all members to settle disputes by § peaceful means, and “these undertakings seem to preclude m using the forcible seizure and occupation of other lands as ~;- bargaining power in the settlement of international dis- >. putes.” For this.reason_Brit- g_

ain and France withdrew un- conditionally, he said, when asked to do so by the General Assembly. “The United States

s- believes that Israel should do

ie | Ses “Queer <2 ef > 1a a eo _ . xe

tie

on Gaza * ®

likewise.”’

So Far, No Further

The President made it clear that he has gone as far as he intends to in supporting Israel's claims in the Gaza strip and the Gulf of Aqaba. After Israel first approves the UN resolution re- quiring withdrawal behind the armistice lines, Washington is prepared to support its claims to ‘free, and peaceful passage” of the Gulf of Aqaba.

Then the United States is pre- pared to support a UN police force in Gaza to assure peace. But further than that, the President has told Israeli Pre- mier Ben-Gurion, the United States-is not now prepared to go. Take: it, and the United States will use its full diplomatic power to support Israel’s right

ee to use of the Gulf of Aqaba and ». freedom from raids from Gaza.

aN Sey wat : Ss > > : ~ = . A oe « (i « . d 7 y - . 7 ee ys » » & ‘eh 7 f

. « » While Ambassador Abba Eban Tells Israel’s Side of Deadlock

Refuse it; and Israel stands iso- lated, defying “the overwhelm- ing judgment of the world com- munity,” and facing the pros- pect of sanctions.

The crisis has become so se- rious the President is returning to Washington from his Georgia Vacation well ahead of schedule. It became so critical over the weekend that Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and Ambas- sador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., chief United States delegate to the UN, flew down to Georgia to see the President. The dead- lock developed so quickly that Secretary. Dulles and _ Israeli Ambassador Abba Eban held three lengthy meetings in 48 hours.

Point of Deadlock The deadlock could be re-

The Washington Scene

Effective Foreign Aid

Washington We'll be hearing a lot about foreign-aid programs this spring. The new Eisenhower

budget Calls for $4,350,000;000

in foreign military and eco- |'nomic aid for fiscal 1958. Per- ‘haps this year, with all the \likely debate, we can get (more clearly in mind what foreign aid is all about.

' ee Se

The business of administer- ing an effective aid program an intricate, skilled pro- 'fession. Americans in general, }and..some..members .of..Con- | gress in particular, whose ‘automatic reaction to the words “foreign aid” is to think lot" “operation rathole,” "or “dogoodism and waste,” or '“no foreign aid whatsoever,” or “no grants, only loans,” may find that there’s more to the subject than snap gen- eralizations.

Certainly the subject is re- ‘ceiving a lot of official atten- tion. Congress.has set up two foreign-aid studies. President ‘Eisenhower. appointed the Fairless Citizens Committee on Foreign Assistance Pro- grams, and its report is due |March 1. Max F, Millikan ‘and W. W. Rostow of the | Center for International ‘Studies, Massachusetts Insti- tute of Technology, have written extensively on policy toward the underdeveloped countries. Paul G. Hoffman, former Marshall Plan admin- istrator, has advanced useful new ideas.

When the Fairless commit- tee report is in, the President is expected to send a special foreign-aid message to Con- gress in support of his budget- ‘ary request. With some mem- ‘bers of Congress up in arms ‘over the size of the budget, the foreign-aid program is likely to be singled out for special attention by the prun- ing shears.

What should be the pur-

is

. pose of our foreign-aid pro-

'gram? Manifestly it has to ‘serve the interests of the ‘United States in an intelli- i'gent way. President Eisen- ‘hower has said that. “one- ithird of all mankind has en- tered upon a/historic struggle for a new freedom: freedom from grinding poverty.” A good many people think that the whole -four-billion-dollar aid program would go into

February 18, 1957

development “schemes © for backward countries. Actually, of the $3,776,000,000 budgeted for foreign aid in fiscal 1957, only $350,000,000 was for économic development just about one-tenth.

The rest went into military assistance and defense sup- port. It went toward main- taining South Korea’s mili- tary divisions, bolstering South Vietnam’s armed strength, bulwarking the army-strained Turkish economy. These were necessary measures. But they weren't economic develop- ment.

We are all aware that Moscow and the Communists are at work among the under-

‘Can That Be Hitched to a Plow?’

developed, emergent peoples. They offer a utopia achieved by Marxist methods, We pre- fer not to have communism capture this undecided one- third of mankind. But how do we prevent this—by signing up the new nations in military

-pacts of allegiance to us and

the West? Suppose they don’t want to sign up?

ht the.

The real, the achievable long-range aim of foreign aid is to build independent, stal- wart nations out of these emergent countries. A hint as to how it can be done was il- lustrated dramatically the other day in Iraq, in the Mid- dle East. Iraq, though an Arab nation, has stood firm in maintaining its Western con- nections. Egypt and Syria, with propaganda and subver-

sion, have sought to topple Iraq’s pro-Western govern- ment. But the government hasn't toppled, even with the tumult over Suez.

The reason: Iraq has an ex-

nr ag

By WILLIAM H. STRINGER, Chief, Washington Bureau, The Christian Science Monitor

tensive development program under way (financed by its own oil revenues). Says the London Economist: “Demon- strations of the classic anti- Western type, once so easily engineered by a quick whip around the slums, have be- come more difficult for the usual agents to organize, be-

solved—irf:

1. Israel would accept an American “promise” to help satisfy its claims in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gaza strip.

2. The United, States would give Israel a “guarantee” of its security and shipping rights

But Israel will not buy a “promise,” and Uncle Sam will not give a “guarantee.”

On earlier occasions the Presi- |dent stated that Israel, as an | aggressor in Egypt, did not have the right to make conditions to withdrawal. Israe] replied that its very security depends: on the guarantee of such conditions after withdrawal. And Israel makes the point that while the United States is demanding that it live up to a UN Assembly

cause men éarning 15 shil- |

lings (unskilled) to 30 shillings | are buying |

' U.S. Stand on Gaza_

broken head or a spell in jail.” |

(skilled) a day watches and radios and are no longer willing to risk a

resolution about from Gaza and Aqaba area, President Eisen- hower makes no demands on Egypt that it obey an earlier UN Security Council decision that Egypt stop restricting Israeli use of the Suez Canal.

The Israelis don’t like to say it, but they feel this is part of a double standard of morality in the conduct of foreign relations —a charge that both Republican and Democratic senators have been making of tate. If President Eisenhower is going to insist that Israel obey a UN resolution, why does it not insist with equal vehemence, that Egypt obey a UN demand, that the Soviet Union respect a UN vote on Hungary, or that India respect a UN resolution on Kashmir?

withdrawal the Gulf of

Implied Answer

Implied in the President's Statement was the answer: That economic action through closing | a canal on Egyptian territory is not a use of military force under the terms of. the-charter. And that although the United States has publicly deplored this inter- ference with free navigation in the canal, it was not a use of full-scale military attack, such as the action of Israel was.

There are-some other possible solutions to thit latest deadlock in the Middle East. Israeli For- eign Minister, Mrs. Golda Meir, has listed four—though only one directly involves the United States they are:

l. A “precise guarantee” by the United States of Israel's se- curity and navigation rights: An “agreement” signed by Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan (the four littoral states on the Gulf of Aqaba) guaran- teeing free navigation for all:

3. A UN decision to keep an emergency force along the gulf until free navigation is assiired.

4. A “peace treaty” between Israe] and Egypt:ending their hostility,

Ss

Israel’s Position |

But Israel's position is that it cannot take less than a guaran- tee from anybody. It may prefer to face sanctions than to face uncertainty. A United States promise to do its best to help is not considered enough.

But President Bisenhower has indicated that if Israel is ad- mant it faces worldWide con-

demnation; United States oppose

sition, possible sanctions.

Israel’s critical decision. must be whether it is more dangerous to go it alone or to rely on a promise.

These Iragis had new in- |

terests—irrigation, new hous- | bridge building—some- | thing better to do than to riot | against a departed colonial- |

ing,

ism. And that, as Messrs. Mil-

likan and Rostow comment, | ~~suggests the aim of" arty “en="T foreign-aid pro- | gram. The objective should be. to awaken hope and interest |

lightened

about the future, to show that improved living standards are attainable by hard work, to shift thought to constructive allegiances, .

In India, for instance, elec-

tion candidates debate as to who has done most to further India’s five-year plan. In some other countries, the

Who did the most in ousting the Dutch, or the French? } re? aw

The Arab lands aren't easily budged from old attitudes. But here an imaginative approach might work wonders: such as the establishment of an Arab League redevelopment bank for making development loans to the entire Middle East. King Saud might be per- suaded to invest his oil reve-

nues in this bank instead of |

into Colonel Nasser’s propa- ganda drives. :

One way or another, we are going to hear a lot about for-

in the months ahead. Foreign

aid is part of the Eisenhower | Doctrine for the Middle East. |

sterile | election debate still concerns: |

in his Feb. 17 statement:

By a Stef Correspondent of The Christian Science Monttor

Washington

Why the United States is pressing Israel to withdraw from Egypt was explained by President Eisenhower in these words

“Israel would prefer to have the future status of the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gaza strip definitely settled to its satisfac- tion prior to its withdrawal, and as a condition thereto. But all members of the United Nations are solemnly bound by the ‘Charter to settle their interiational disputes by péaceful Means, and in their international relations to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity of any state.

These undertakings seem to preclude using the forcible seizure and occupation of other lands as bargaining power in the settle-

ment of international] disputes.

“The United Kingdom and France, which occupied portions of Egypt at about the time of Israel’s attack upon Egypt of last October, withdrew promptly and unconditionglly tn response

} tothe same United Nations resolution that called for Israett withdrawal. They deferred to the overwhelming judgment of

the world community that a solution of their difficulties with Egypt should be sought after withdrawal, and not be made a condition precedent to withdrawal. The United States believes

that Israel should do likewise.” United States releases note on Middle East stand: Page 3

Dulles offers plan for Gaza strip settlement: Page 12 Israel note to United States released: Page 12

Israel Calls Envoy To U.S. for Report .

The World's Day

Mideast: Eban Recalled for Consultation

_ Abba Eban. Israeli Ambassador to the United States has been | recalled for immediate consultations.

| New England: Dockers to Return to Work

eign development programs | With-a settlement of the east coast dock strike announced, ports | from Virginia to Maine began preparing for d resumption of

France has proposed a Eur- |

_ Washington: Playwright Miller Indicted

Playwright Arthur Miller was indieted-on-two- charges of con-

africa development. West Germany aims to work more

with backward nations. The | United Nations has its own |

“Point Four” program. It would be useful if we could discover that John. Hollister, director of this country’s In- ternational Cooperation Ad- ministration, was taking an imaginative look at the future.

work early this week. New England longshoremes are ex- pected to return to their jobs tomorrow morning. [Page 14.]

tempt of Congress. Mr. Miller had refused to tell a House com- mittee the names of fellow writers with whom he admitted

attending Communist Party meetings in 1947. Eric Ollenhauer, West German Socialist leader, said his 30-

minute talk with Secretary of State Dulles featured a “very satisfactory” review of European problems.

Weather Predictions: Cloudy Tonight (Page 2)

Art, Music, Theater: Page 5. Radio, FM, TV: Page 7

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—_

‘Fifteen Years of Pay Negotiations’ | _ Marked by Manchester Teachers

By Mary Handy Stag Writer of The Christian Sctence Monitor _....._Manehester, N.H.

“Can people think it is an ac- cident that there is such a teach- et shortage from coast to coast?” asked Joseph G. Thomas, a Man- chester high-schoo! teacher.

“Tt’s no accident,” he con- tinued. “How many self-respect- ing people you know want to enter a profession that will give them $56 of take-home pay a week with which to support their families?”

We were sitting in a basement teachers’ room of the Central Public High School in Manches- ter- discussing why 365 Man- chester teachers went on strike for higher salaries a few days

ago. it's only after 15 years of

' discouraging negotiation that we

have come to this point,” added Mr. Thomas, “At one time Man- chester had the best teacher salary schedule in the state. Now it has one of the worst. The take-home pay of the average teacher is $56 a week.

“Every effort now is aimed at keeping taxes low to attract new industry. The aldermen and finance committee can and do cut the school budget to ribbons.”

The six high-school teachers who talked with us showed by

. their words and-expressions that

they neither were nor are en- thusiastic about going on a strike. They thought long and hard before they took such ac- tion,

“What Else Could We Deo?’

“We are conservative people,” in Miss Adelaide Dodge, chairman of the social science department. “We don’t like to stay home from classes. But what else could we do? We

‘years of unsuccessful negotia- tion.”

Their , three-day. strike came. after the Manchester city gov-— ‘ernment refused their request)

|

for salary increases at all levels and giving possible tops of $4,- 700 (no degree), $5,000 (bache- lor’s degree) and $5,300 (mas- ters degree).

Instead, the Mayor offered ithem the 10 per cent increase going to all city empolyees and there was talk of their reaching their requested maximums after four years. But to the teachers this sounded like just more talk. When they were refused their request for arbitration to find a middie ground, they § stayed home from classes until the | State Superior._Court.decided that they should not.

Now the right of a teacher to.

strike is being fought out in the New Hampshire Supreme Court —and the teachers are back in their classes.

The alternative that hundreds of teachers are taking all over the nation—leaving teaching for some profession that pays bet- ter—does not seem to attract these although undoubtedly many could find other work.

Question of Quality

“There isn’t anybody among the teachers who is finished,” explained Miss Dodge. we're hunting for other ways to convince people of our needs.

“At present salaries we sim- ply cannot attract the best young teachers to Manchester. Our concern is not just for our- selves. We hate to ~see the quality of teaching deteriorate.

“I really think many Man- chester residents don’t know the difference between a. good | teacher and a poor teacher. For them a teacher is a_ teacher.

“Now

J

es © ost ¥

know no other weapon after 15 | Now, since we stayed home from | to make one another stay ho | Classes, for the first time many | Miss te

are reading what we are paid. “The public. doesn’t..realize |

that as professional le we)

expect to send our children to

;

college. We just can’t get along |

on a Woolworth salary.” |

Leonard Foley, chairman of the science department broke in: “As you can imagine, our | teen-agers here aren't thinking | about going into teaching. They | see us having to work at other | jobs late afternoons and eve-| nings. ;

“And believe me, the teacher | who has to work evenings and |

, Saturdays at some other job is

not able to put his full energy | into teaching—and good teach- | ing needs all you can give.” | Not Union Members

The teachers of Manchester do | not belong to any national labor | union. They have a local club | called the Manchester Teacher’s |

Guild which does everything |

from carrying on drives for the |

Red Cross to negotiating for sal | aries. Eighty-nine per cent of | Manchester’s 365 teachers be- | long to the guild. |

Last fall the teachers in the

‘guild voted to have their salary | committee work out what they

considered a fair salary. They decided to fight for it even to the point of taking “drastic action.”

When the refusal of the city government to accept their pro- posal convinced them = such “drastic action” Was néressary they ran ads in the local news- paper. explaining their. view- point and stating they expected to remain away from classes the following Monday.

“None of us made any effort

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their struggle for higher salaries.

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amazed so large a proportion wanted to stay out. We are con- servatives. It indicates how deeply troubled we all are...”

The teachers’ requests are not)

only for higher beginning and top salaries but for “straighten- ing things out in the middie.” Salaries Not Adjusted “Every time they changed the minimum they didn’t change the salaries according,” explains Mr.

Foley. “New teachers from other towns are hired on a better basis than those who have been here three or four or five years. That’s bad on morale.” )

The short strike has brought telephone calls and letters from all over the nation to the Man- chester schools. Within the town ‘the teachers are well aware of divided opinion. But they feel the students and most of the parents are on their side.

Many casual acquaintances among the professional people have been grabbing teachers hands and'‘encouraging them in

On the other side, Miss Dodge

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Frick Art Reference Library

recently overheard a beauty

salon operator asking: “What do |

they. want? Cadillacs?”

The only local have formally supported them so far, she adds, are the musi- cians and the firefighters.

But one result seems clear: Not for a long time in Manchester have teachers’ salaries been the hottest subject for street-corner conversation.

Second of two articles. The first was published on Feb. 16.

R.I. Landowner

Upheld by Court

On Shore Rights

By the Associated Press

Providence, R&.I. |

Superior Court, Judge John S. | McKiernan, describing as funda- |

imental the right of shore prop- | ‘erty owners to build a wharf

‘out to navigable waters, ‘denied a petition designed

has | to

| prevent Commerce Oil Company ifrom constructing a pier for its |proposed $39,000,000 oil refinery 'on the island of Jamestown.

group

The petition for preliminary injunction was brought by a of Jamestown property owners.

Judge McKiernan said he doubted even the state Legisla- ture could prevent the company

| from building the pier for tank- ‘ers on its own property. Action

of the state’s Division of Har-

‘bors and Rivers in passing on the

| pier

is merely regulatory, he

| said.

rwinds’ 23" to "35 iles Tuesday.

Commerce oil is to meet with

the Navy this week. to determine |

if agreement can be reached on the refinery’s construction. The Navy has expressed fear the company’s installations and op- erations will interfere with its activities at Newport and Quon- set Point. The company would process for the Gulf Oil Com- pany if it follows through on its construction plans. Official town